Monthly Archives: October 2014

Influence of curvature on the device physics of thin film transistors on flexible substrates

Thin film transistors (TFTs) on elastomers promise flexible electronics with stretching and bending. Recently, there have been several experimental studies reporting the behavior of TFTs under bending and buckling. In the presence of stress, the insulator capacitance is influenced due to two reasons. The first is the variation in insulator thickness depending on the Poisson ratio and strain. The second is the geometric influence of the curvature of the insulator-semiconductor interface during bending or buckling. This paper models the role of curvature on TFT performance and brings to light an elegant result wherein the TFT characteristics is dependent on the area under the capacitance-distance curve. The paper compares models with simulations and explains several experimental findings reported in literature.

A Hard Oxide Semiconductor with A Direct and Narrow Bandgap and Switchable p–n Electrical Conduction

An oxide semiconductor (perovskite-type Mn2O3) is reported which has a narrow and direct bandgap of 0.45 eV and a high Vickers hardness of 15 GPa. All the known materials with similar electronic band structures (e.g., InSb, PbTe, PbSe, PbS, and InAs) play crucial roles in the semiconductor industry. The perovskite-type Mn2O3 described is much stronger than the above semiconductors and may find useful applications in different semiconductor devices, e.g., in IR detectors.

Influence of an anomalous dimension effect on thermal instability in amorphous-InGaZnO thin-film transistors

This paper investigates abnormal dimension-dependent thermal instability in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors. Device dimension should theoretically have no effects on threshold voltage, except for in short channel devices. Unlike short channel drain-induced source barrier lowering effect, threshold voltage increases with increasing drain voltage. Furthermore, for devices with either a relatively large channel width or a short channel length, the output drain current decreases instead of saturating with an increase in drain voltage. Moreover, the wider the channel and the shorter the channel length, the larger the threshold voltage and output on-state current degradation that is observed. Because of the surrounding oxide and other thermal insulating material and the low thermal conductivity of the IGZO layer, the self-heating effect will be pronounced in wider/shorter channel length devices and those with a larger operating drain bias. To further clarify the physical mechanism, fast ID-VG and modulated peak/base pulse time ID-VD measurements are utilized to demonstrate the self-heating induced anomalous dimension-dependent threshold voltage variation and on-state current degradation.

Density of states of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O from electrical and optical characterization

We have developed a subgap density of states (DOS) model of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) based on optical and electrical measurements. We study the optical absorption spectrum of the a-IGZO using UV-Vis spectroscopy. Together with the first-principles calculations and transient photoconductance spectroscopy from the literature, we determine that the valence band tail and deep-gap states are donors and can be described by exponential and Gaussian distributions, respectively. The conduction band tail and deep-gap states are examined using multi-frequency capacitance-voltage spectroscopy on a-IGZO thin-film transistors (TFTs). The extracted conduction band DOS are fitted to exponential (bandtail) and Gaussian (deep-gap) functions and their validity are supported by the activation energy vs. gate-source bias relationship of the a-IGZO TFT. The PL deep-level emission, which is almost identical to the conduction band deep-gap Gaussian, suggests that these states should be assigned as acceptors. The donor/acceptor assignments of subgap states are consistent with the 2D numerical TFT simulations.

Facile fabrication of high-performance InGaZnO thin film transistor using hydrogen ion irradiation at room temperature

Device performance of InGaZnO (IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) are investigated as a function of hydrogen ion irradiation dose at room temperature. Field effect mobility is enhanced, and subthreshold gate swing is improved with the increase of hydrogen ion irradiation dose, and there is no thermal annealing. The electrical device performance is correlated with the electronic structure of IGZO films, such as chemical bonding states, features of the conduction band, and band edge states below the conduction band. The decrease of oxygen deficient bonding and the changes in electronic structure of the conduction band leads to the improvement of device performance in IGZO TFT with an increase of the hydrogen ion irradiation dose.

Controllable film densification and interface flatness for high-performance amorphous indium oxide based thin film transistors

To avoid the problem of air sensitive and wet-etched Zn and/or Ga contained amorphous oxide transistors, we propose an alternative amorphous semiconductor of indium silicon tungsten oxide as the channel material for thin film transistors. In this study, we employ the material to reveal the relation between the active thin film and the transistor performance with aid of x-ray reflectivity study. By adjusting the pre-annealing temperature, we find that the film densification and interface flatness between the film and gate insulator are crucial for achieving controllable high-performance transistors. The material and findings in the study are believed helpful for realizing controllable high-performance stable transistors.

Compact diamond MOSFET model accounting for PAMDLE applicable down 150 nm node

The performance improvements for integrated circuit applications of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal–oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) implemented with diamond layout style (hexagonal gate geometry) are quantified, thanks to the longitudinal corner effect and parallel association of MOSFETs with different channel lengths effect contributions. Futhermore, an accurate analytical drain current model for planar diamond SOI MOSFET for micrometre scale effective channel lengths is proposed and validated. The concept is then extended by 3D simulations for the 150 nm node fully-depleted SOI n-channel MOSFETs.

Ge surface-energy-driven secondary grain growth via two-step annealing

Publication date: 28 November 2014 Source:Thin Solid Films, Volume 571, Part 1 Author(s): Sangsoo Lee , Yong-Hoon Son , Yongjo Park , Kihyun Hwang , Yoo Gyun Shin , Euijoon Yoon A two-step annealing method with a low thermal budget is proposed for advanced surface-energy-driven secondary grain growth of Ge films without any agglomeration. In the first-step annealing, the normal grain growth from as-deposited poly-crystalline Ge films was induced to make the grain size equivalent to the film thickness at 800°C. After the subsequent second-step annealing at 900°C, the much larger secondary grains were obtained than those by single-step annealing at 900°C. The possible explanation regarding the final microstructure of the two-step annealed film is proposed. The two-step annealing was able to form the microstructure of Ge thin film with very large-grained matrix without any agglomeration, resulting in higher carrier mobility. Therefore, the proposed two-step annealing is believed to be a promising process applicable for channel formation processes in the next-generation Ge thin film transistors for 3D integrated circuits and vertical NAND flash memories.

Influence of an anomalous dimension effect on thermal instability in amorphous-InGaZnO thin-film transistors

This paper investigates abnormal dimension-dependent thermal instability in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors. Device dimension should theoretically have no effects on threshold voltage, except for in short channel devices. Unlike short channel drain-induced source barrier lowering effect, threshold voltage increases with increasing drain voltage. Furthermore, for devices with either a relatively large channel width or a short channel length, the output drain current decreases instead of saturating with an increase in drain voltage. Moreover, the wider the channel and the shorter the channel length, the larger the threshold voltage and output on-state current degradation that is observed. Because of the surrounding oxide and other thermal insulating material and the low thermal conductivity of the IGZO layer, the self-heating effect will be pronounced in wider/shorter channel length devices and those with a larger operating drain bias. To further clarify the physical mechanism, fast ID-VG and modulated peak/base pulse time ID-VD measurements are utilized to demonstrate the self-heating induced anomalous dimension-dependent threshold voltage variation and on-state current degradation.

Density of states of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O from electrical and optical characterization

We have developed a subgap density of states (DOS) model of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) based on optical and electrical measurements. We study the optical absorption spectrum of the a-IGZO using UV-Vis spectroscopy. Together with the first-principles calculations and transient photoconductance spectroscopy from the literature, we determine that the valence band tail and deep-gap states are donors and can be described by exponential and Gaussian distributions, respectively. The conduction band tail and deep-gap states are examined using multi-frequency capacitance-voltage spectroscopy on a-IGZO thin-film transistors (TFTs). The extracted conduction band DOS are fitted to exponential (bandtail) and Gaussian (deep-gap) functions and their validity are supported by the activation energy vs. gate-source bias relationship of the a-IGZO TFT. The PL deep-level emission, which is almost identical to the conduction band deep-gap Gaussian, suggests that these states should be assigned as acceptors. The donor/acceptor assignments of subgap states are consistent with the 2D numerical TFT simulations.