Monthly Archives: August 2014

The effect of a zinc?tin-oxide layer used as an etch-stopper layer on the bias stress stability of solution-processed indium?gallium?zinc-oxide thin-film transistors

We investigated the bias stress stability of solution-processed indium?gallium?zinc-oxide thin-film transistors (IGZO TFTs) using zinc?tin-oxide (ZTO) as the etch-stopper layer, the so-called dual-active-layered ZTO/IGZO TFT (DALZI TFT). The DALZI TFT can use a low-cost back-channel-etch structure because of the high chemical stability of the upper ZTO layer. The DALZI TFT exhibited only a threshold voltage shift of ?1.86?V under negative bias illumination stress (NBIS) conditions (stress time?=?1000?s), while the unpassivated IGZO TFT suffered from a threshold voltage shift of ?19.59?V under NBIS conditions (stress time?=?1000?s). The superior bias stress stability of the DALZI TFT is attributed not only to the densification effect by the multi-stacking process but also to the lower sensitivity to ambient gases (e.g., oxygen and water vapour) due to the low oxygen vacancy in the upper ZTO layer.

The effect of a zinc–tin-oxide layer used as an etch-stopper layer on the bias stress stability of solution-processed indium–gallium–zinc-oxide thin-film transistors

We investigated the bias stress stability of solution-processed indium–gallium–zinc-oxide thin-film transistors (IGZO TFTs) using zinc–tin-oxide (ZTO) as the etch-stopper layer, the so-called dual-active-layered ZTO/IGZO TFT (DALZI TFT). The DALZI TFT can use a low-cost back-channel-etch structure because of the high chemical stability of the upper ZTO layer. The DALZI TFT exhibited only a threshold voltage shift of −1.86 V under negative bias illumination stress (NBIS) conditions (stress time = 1000 s), while the unpassivated IGZO TFT suffered from a threshold voltage shift of −19.59 V under NBIS conditions (stress time = 1000 s). The superior bias stress stability of the DALZI TFT is attributed not only to the densification effect by the multi-stacking process but also to the lower sensitivity to ambient gases (e.g., oxygen and water vapour) due to the low oxygen vacancy in the upper ZTO layer.

On the structural-optical properties of Al-containing amorphous Si thin films and the metal-induced crystallization phenomenon

Amorphous (a-)Si-based materials always attracted attention of the scientific community, especially after their use in commercial devices like solar cells and thin film transistors in the 1980s. In addition to their technological importance, the study of a-Si-based materials also present some interesting theoretical-practical challenges. Their crystallization as induced by metal species is one example, which is expected to influence the development of electronic-photovoltaic devices. In fact, the amorphous-to-crystalline transformation of the a-SiAl system has been successfully applied to produce solar cells suggesting that further improvements can be achieved. Stimulated by these facts, this work presents a comprehensive study of the a-SiAl system. The samples, with Al contents in the ∼0−15 at. % range, were made in the form of thin films and were characterized by different spectroscopic techniques. The experimental results indicated that: (a) increasing amounts of Al changed both the atomic structure and the optical properties of the samples; (b) thermal annealing induced the crystallization of the samples at temperatures that depend on the Al concentration; and (c) the crystallization process was also influenced by the annealing duration and the structural disorder of the samples. All of these aspects were addressed in view of the existing models of the a-Si crystallization, which were also discussed to some extent. Finally, the ensemble of experimental results suggest an alternative method to produce cost-effective crystalline Si films with tunable structural-optical properties.

Effects of hydrogen plasma treatment on the electrical behavior of solution-processed ZnO transistors

The effects of hydrogen plasma treatment on the active layer of top-contact zinc oxide thin film transistors are reported. The transfer characteristics of the reference devices exhibited large hysteresis effects and an increasing positive threshold voltage (VTH) shift on repeated measurements. In contrast, following the plasma processing, the corresponding characteristics of the transistors exhibited negligible hysteresis and a very small VTH shift; the devices also possessed higher field effect carrier mobility values. These results were attributed to the presence of functional groups in the vicinity of the semiconductor/gate insulator interface, which prevents the formation of an effective channel.

Temperature gradient approach to grow large, preferentially oriented 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene crystals for organic thin film transistors

In this study, 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) (TIPS) pentacene crystalline growth was enhanced using temperature gradient across the substrate. This method induced a preferential crystal orientation in order to alleviate the intrinsic crystallization anisotropy and control film morphology. The temperature gradient led to a solubility difference along the substrate and drove crystallization from the lower-temperature end to the higher. The approach also enables a methodical investigation of how TIPS pentacene crystal morphology depends on temperature. The resulting TIPS pentacene film exhibited a uniform morphology and high percentage of large areal coverage. X-ray diffraction characterization showed that the film crystallinity was not sacrificed when a temperature gradient is applied. The authors demonstrated that organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) based on TIPS pentacene crystals grown using the temperature-gradient method significantly enhanced average mobility when compared to OTFTs using films grown without the temperature gradient.

Room-temperature-processed flexible n-InGaZnO/p-Cu 2 O heterojunction diodes and high-frequency diode rectifiers

In this work, we report successful implementation of room-temperature-processed flexible n-InGaZnO/p-Cu 2 O heterojunction diodes on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) plastic substrates using the sputtering technique. Using n-type InGaZnO and p-type Cu 2 O films deposited by sputtering at room temperature, flexible n-InGaZnO/p-Cu 2 O heterojunction diodes were successfully fabricated on PEN plastic substrates. The didoes on PEN substrates exhibited a low apparent turn-on voltage of 0.44 V, a high rectification ratio of up to 3.4 × 10 4 at ±1.2 V, a high forward current of 1 A cm −2 around 1 V and a decent ideality factor of 1.4, similar to the characteristics of n-InGaZnO/p-Cu 2 O diodes fabricated on glass substrates. The characterization of the frequency response of the room-temperature-processed flexible n-InGaZnO/p-Cu 2 O heterojunction diode rectifiers indicated that they are capable of high-frequency operation up...

Characterizing p-channel thin film transistors using ZnO/hydrated polyvinyl alcohol as the conducting channel

We report the characteristics of p-channel thin film transistors (p-TFTs) with ZnO/hydrated polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) (ZnO/PVA) conducting channels. The metal-oxide-semiconductor structure of the p-TFTs was composed of indium tin oxide (ITO)/SiO2/ZnO/PVA layers. The TFT was assembled using PVA gel, which was glued to ITO substrates patterned to form source and drain electrodes. The ZnO/PVA composite film acted as an effective conducting film because of the chemisorption reaction at the film interface where free electrons can be generated. The formation of the conducting channel was also affected by VG applied to the TFT. The ZnO/PVA-based TFTs demonstrated p-channel transistor performance, shown by current-voltage (I-V) data analysis. The electrical parameters of the device were evaluated, including the on/off ratio (∼103), threshold voltage (Vth, −1 V), and subthreshold swing (−2.2 V/dec). The PVA/ZnO-based p-TFTs were fabricated using simple and cost-effective approaches instead of doping methods.

Investigation of phosphonic acid surface modifications on zinc oxide nanoparticles under ambient conditions

Publication date: 28 August 2014 Source:Thin Solid Films, Volume 565 Author(s): Rosalynn Quiñones , Kate Rodriguez , Robbie J. Iuliucci Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles have emerged as a fascinating metal oxide semiconductor nanomaterial due largely to their wide array of properties that can be altered by surface modification. For example electrical and photonic properties include a range of conductivity from metallic to insulating (n-type and p- type conductivity), wide-band gap semiconductivity, room-temperature ferromagnetism, and chemical-sensing. Recently there has been much interest in the electronic and photonic properties of ZnO nanostructures as foreseeable applications include solar cells and laser diodes. For such purposes, controlling the surface functionalization is important and can be tailored by the chemical attachment of organic acids to the surface. The oxide surface readily reacts with organics forming self-assembled alkylphosphonate films. In this study, ZnO nanoparticles were modified using self-assembly thin films with phosphonic functional head groups. The amount of organic acid used in preparation of the thin film was shown to be important to the nanoparticle surface coverage. The modified ZnO nanoparticles were then characterized using infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The interfacial bonding was identified by spectroscopy analysis to be the bidentate and tridentate motifs between the phosphonic head group and the oxide surface. Work function modification was measured using Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. The influences of temperature, humidity, and solvent rinse on the stability of the surface modifications were performed.

Weight updating floating-gate synapse

A novel floating-gate synapse circuit is designed to update the weight in spike time dependent plasticity (STDP) system. The update of the weight is implemented through tunnelling and injection mechanisms using floating-gate metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors. The importance of this circuit is for obtaining a storage mechanism for synaptic strength to implement the learning signal processing application on silicon. A novel floating-gate synapse circuit and a new integrate-and-fire neuron model are described to implement weight updating in a STDP system.